Resveratrol Properties P-3a
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Absorption, Metabolism, and Bioavailability
The chemical structure of resveratrol leads to low water solubility (<0.05 mg/mL), which affects its absorption. In order to increase its solubility, ethanol (50 mg/mL) or organic solvents may be used. It is important to highlight the ability of resveratrol to form a wide range of organic molecular complexes. Sterification of hydroxyl groups with aliphatic molecules can also be employed as a tool to increase its intestinal absorption and cellular permeability. For example, resveratrol acetylation can increase its absorption and its cellular capture without loss of activity.
At the intestinal level, resveratrol is absorbed by passive diffusion or forming complexes with membrane transporters, such as integrins. Once in the bloodstream, resveratrol can be found essentially in three different forms: glucuronide, sulfate, or free. The free form can be bound to albumin and lipoproteins such as LDL (low-density lipoprotein). These complexes, in turn, can be dissociated at cellular membranes that have receptors for albumin and LDL, leaving the resveratrol free and allowing it to enter cells. Resveratrol's affinity for albumin suggests that it could be a natural polyphenolic reservoir, playing an important role in its distribution and bioavailability.
Due to its chemical characteristics, resveratrol can interact with fatty acids. Recent studies in vitro show that more than 90% of free trans-resveratrol binds to human plasma lipoproteins. This binding is also found in vivo, as shown by the presence of dietary polyphenolic compounds detected in isolated LDL in blood samples of healthy human volunteers. Fatty acids facilitate a lipophilic environment, which favors resveratrol binding. Normally they are employed as vectors because of their high affinity for the liver and their efficient cellular uptake, resulting from specific interactions with transmembrane transporters.
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